AYPLHIVAdolescents and young people living with HIV
CSEComprehensive sexuality education
GIPAGreater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS
HIVHuman immunodeficiency virus
HPVHuman papillomavirus
PEPPost-exposure prophylaxis
PrEPPre-exposure prophylaxis
SRHSexual and reproductive health
SRHRSexual and reproductive health and rights
STISexually transmitted infection
U=UUndetectable equals untransmittable
UNUnited Nations
UNAIDSJoint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
UNESCOUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNFPAUnited Nations Population Fund
WHOWorld Health Organisation
Y+ GlobalGlobal Network of Young People Living with HIV  
YPLHIVYoung people living with HIV


Concentrated epidemic

When HIV prevalence is consistently over five percent in at least one defined sub-population, but is not well-established in the general population, the epidemic is known as concentrated.

Generalised epidemic

When HIV is firmly established in the general population, with prevalence consistently over one percent in pregnant women nationwide, the epidemic is considered generalised.

Harm reduction

This refers to evidence-based policies, programmes and practices that aim to keep people who use drugs safe and minimize the negative health, social and legal impacts associated with drug use and drug laws. It focuses on working with people without judgement, coercion, discrimination, or requiring that they stop using drugs as a precondition of support. While harm reduction has often focused mainly on injecting drug users, full spectrum harm reduction incorporates all the people who use drugs, and all the methods with which they use them, taking into account the diversity of political, social, and environmental contexts globally.

HIV prevalence

Usually given as a percentage, prevalence quantifies the proportion of individuals in a population who are living with HIV at a specific point in time.

Key populations

Groups who are particularly vulnerable to or disproportionately affected by HIV are known as key populations. They frequently suffer from punitive laws or stigmatising policies and lack adequate access to services. UNAIDS considers the five main key population groups to be gay men and other men who have sex with men, sex workers, transgender people, people who inject drugs and prisoners and other incarcerated people.

Treatment literacy

Treatment literacy is the understanding of the major issues related to an illness or disease – such as the science, treatment, side-effects, and guidelines – so that people can make the best decisions for their own health and are in a position to demand that their rights are respected when proper care is not available to them.


'Undetectable’ means that a person’s viral load, or level of virus in the blood, is extremely low (below 200 copies per millilitre of blood measured). This level is achieved by being on effective HIV treatment and taking it as prescribed. ‘Untransmittable’ means that the virus cannot be passed on through sex.

Young key populations

Young key populations specifically refers to young people who are members of key populations.

The recommendations seek to inform a broad range of stakeholders. They can serve as a tool to inform the review and update of national policies and curricula, as a guide for schools or teachers looking to build a more inclusive and supportive environment for learners, or as an advocacy tool for civil society organisations and youth activists. 

Websites and resources which provide a range of useful information, advice and tools relating to adolescents and young people living with HIV.